Democratic peace , the proposition that democratic states never or almost never wage war on one another. The concept of democratic peace must be distinguished from the claim that democracies are in general more peaceful than nondemocratic countries. Whereas the latter claim is controversial, the claim that democratic states do not fight each other is widely regarded as true by scholars and practitioners of international relations. Proponents of the democratic peace hark back to the German philosopher Immanuel Kant and, more recently, to U. In Project for a Perpetual Peace , Kant envisioned the establishment of a zone of peace among states constituted as republics. Thus, the terms democratic peace or liberal peace and Kantian peace are today often used interchangeably.
Liberalism In Immanuel Kant's The Perpetual Peace
What Is the Democratic Peace Theory?
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Immanuel Kant on War and Peace
Liberal Christianity , also known as liberal theology , is a movement that interprets and reforms Christian teaching by taking into consideration modern knowledge, science and ethics. It emphasizes the importance of reason and experience over doctrinal authority. Liberal Christians view their theology as an alternative to both atheistic rationalism and to theologies based on traditional interpretations of external authority such as the Bible or sacred tradition. Liberal theology grew out of Enlightenment rationalism and romanticism of the 18th and 19th centuries. By the late 19th and early 20th centuries, it was characterized by an acceptance of Darwinian evolution , a utilization of modern biblical criticism and participation in the Social Gospel movement.
Some variant of this response to Plato was the core of aesthetics through much of subsequent philosophical history, and indeed continued to be central to aesthetics through much of the twentieth century. In the eighteenth century, however, two alternative responses to Plato were introduced. This line of thought was emphasized by Jean-Baptiste Du Bos in his Critical Reflections on Poetry, Painting, and Music , published in France in and widely known throughout Europe even before it was translated into other languages. The other innovation was the idea that our response to beauty, whether in nature or in art, is a free play of our mental powers that is intrinsically pleasurable, and thus needs no epistemological or moral justification, although it may in fact have epistemological and moral benefits.