Computer ethics is a part of practical philosophy concerned with how computing professionals should make decisions regarding professional and social conduct. Maner noticed ethical concerns that were brought up during his Medical Ethics course at Old Dominion University became more complex and difficult when the use of technology and computers became involved. The concept of computer ethics originated in the s with MIT professor Norbert Wiener , the American mathematician and philosopher. While working on anti-aircraft artillery during World War II , Wiener and his fellow engineers developed a system of communication between the part of a cannon that tracked a warplane, the part that performed calculations to estimate a trajectory, and the part responsible for firing. A bit later during the same year, the world's first computer crime was committed. A programmer was able to use a bit of computer code to stop his banking account from being flagged as overdrawn.
A Critique Of Socrates Ethics Philosophy Essay
Philosophy Essay: Socrates on Definitions, Sample of Essays
The French philosopher and historian Michel Foucault does not understand ethics as moral philosophy, the metaphysical and epistemological investigation of ethical concepts metaethics and the investigation of the criteria for evaluating actions normative ethics , as Anglo-American philosophers do. Instead, he defines ethics as a relation of self to itself in terms of its moral agency. The Hermeneutics of the Subject provides greater insight into the ancient ethics of caring for self and how Foucault perceives it in relation to the history of philosophy. Both The Government of Self and Others and The Courage of Truth — his final courses, respectively — make it manifest that he considered the ancient ethical practice of parrhesia or frank-speech central to ancient ethics and, indeed, important to his own philosophical practice. He lays claim to the spirit of the tradition of critical philosophy established by Immanuel Kant, and Foucault purports to exemplify this spirit by disclosing, or telling the truth about, the historical conditions of the contingent constraints that we impose on ourselves and, in doing so, opening possibilities for autonomous ethical relations. Of central concern are the compatibility of his claim to critical philosophy as an ethical practice and his broader views about subjectivity, and whether his critical analysis of modern ethics is meant to be merely descriptive or also evaluative. The primary focus of this article is the nature of ethics as Foucault conceives it, and it is unpacked by discussion of his published historical studies of ancient Greek and Roman ethics.
Essays on Socrates
Socrates BC was a Greek philosopher who sought to get to the foundations of his students' and colleagues' views by asking continual questions until a contradiction was exposed, thus proving the fallacy of the initial assumption. This became known as the Socratic Method, and may be Socrates' most enduring contribution to philosophy. Our students discover quickly that the Socratic Method is a tool and a good one at that used to engage a large group of students in a discussion, while using probing questions to get at the heart of the subject matter. The Socratic Method is not used at UChicago to intimidate, nor to "break down" new law students, but instead for the very reason Socrates developed it: to develop critical thinking skills in students and enable them to approach the law as intellectuals. The Law School is proud of its excellent teachers and their use of this time-tested method.
Here Socrates appeared, despite his lengthy defense, not to acquit himself from all accusations, but rather to deliberately ensure that he would be found guilty and thus condemned to death. If Socrates believed his moral purpose was to achieve philosophical virtue, justice and truth by examining life to its fullest, why then would he willingly give his life on the charges of crimes that he did not commit? The answer lies in Socrates realization that taking the right course of action is more important than one that will save him. For he states: "Someone will say: And are you not ashamed, Socrates, of a course of life which is likely to bring you to an untimely end? To him I may fairly answer: There you are mistaken: a man who is good for anything ought not to calculate the chance of living or dying; he ought only to consider whether in doing anything he is doing right or wrong - acting the part of a good man or of a bad" This is Socrates most cherished principle, that in dying for his beliefs he would be choosing the most noble action and not the most obvious.