Opinions and suggestions for the improvement of teaching reading to learners of English as a foreign language, whether based on the results of research and experience, are available in language teaching literature. This paper summarizes various theories, findings, and opinions concerning the teaching of reading. An understanding of these topics, especially the theory of top-down, bottom-up, and meta-cognitive, could be used as the basis for improving the techniques of teaching reading. By doing so, the reading proficiency of learners of English as a foreign language could be significantly enhanced. Keywords: top-down, bottom-up, schemata, meta-cognitive, pre-reading, during-reading, after-reading.
First and Second Language Acquisition Essay - Words | Bartleby
Thomas Samuel Kuhn — is one of the most influential philosophers of science of the twentieth century, perhaps the most influential. His book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is one of the most cited academic books of all time. His account of the development of science held that science enjoys periods of stable growth punctuated by revisionary revolutions. He then switched to history of science, and as his career developed he moved over to philosophy of science, although retaining a strong interest in the history of physics. In , he graduated from Harvard summa cum laude. Thereafter he spent the remainder of the war years in research related to radar at Harvard and then in Europe.
Theories of Second Language Acquisition
Second-language acquisition SLA , sometimes called second-language learning — otherwise referred to as L2 language 2 acquisition , is the process by which people learn a second language. Second-language acquisition is also the scientific discipline devoted to studying that process. The field of second-language acquisition is a sub-discipline of applied linguistics but also receives research attention from a variety of other disciplines, such as psychology and education.
Verbal Behavior is a book by psychologist B. Skinner , in which he describes what he calls verbal behavior, or what was traditionally called linguistics. The origin of Verbal Behavior was an outgrowth of a series of lectures first presented at the University of Minnesota in the early s and developed further in his summer lectures at Columbia and William James lectures at Harvard in the decade before the book's publication. Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior drew heavily on methods of literary analysis. Skinner's Verbal Behavior also introduced the autoclitic and six elementary operants: mand, tact, audience relation, echoic, textual, and intraverbal.