These traits derive from natural internal tendencies, but need to be nurtured; however, once established, they will become stable. Unlike deontological and consequentialist theories, theories of virtue ethics do not aim primarily to identify universal principles that can be applied in any moral situation. Since its revival in the twentieth century, virtue ethics has been developed in three main directions: Eudaimonism, agent-based theories, and the ethics of care. An agent-based theory emphasizes that virtues are determined by common-sense intuitions that we as observers judge to be admirable traits in other people. The third branch of virtue ethics, the ethics of care, was proposed predominately by feminist thinkers. It challenges the idea that ethics should focus solely on justice and autonomy; it argues that more feminine traits, such as caring and nurturing, should also be considered.
Events and Their Names - Jonathan Bennett, Jonathan Francis Bennett - Google Книги
Logical positivism , later called logical empiricism , and both of which together are also known as neopositivism , was a movement in Western philosophy whose central thesis was the verification principle also known as the verifiability criterion of meaning. Starting in the late s, groups of philosophers, scientists, and mathematicians formed the Berlin Circle and the Vienna Circle , which, in these two cities, would propound the ideas of logical positivism. Flourishing in several European centres through the s, the movement sought to prevent confusion rooted in unclear language and unverifiable claims by converting philosophy into "scientific philosophy", which, according to the logical positivists, ought to share the bases and structures of empirical sciences ' best examples, such as Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. After World War II, the movement shifted to a milder variant, logical empiricism, led mainly by Carl Hempel , who, during the rise of Nazism, had immigrated into the United States.
Modern Moral Philosophy by G.E.M. Anscombe — A Summary
Gertrude Elizabeth Margaret Anscombe was one of the most gifted philosophers of the twentieth century. Her work continues to strongly influence philosophers working in action theory and moral philosophy. At the time of her birth her father was serving in the British Army. The family later returned to England where Allen Anscombe resumed his career as a schoolmaster. Anscombe attended the Sydenham School, graduating in , and went on to St.
A rigid designator designates the same object in all possible worlds in which that object exists and never designates anything else. This technical concept in the philosophy of language has critical consequences felt throughout philosophy. In their fullest generality, the consequences are metaphysical and epistemological. Whether a statement's designators are rigid or non-rigid may determine whether it is necessarily true, necessarily false, or contingent. This metaphysical status is sometimes out of accord with what one would expect given a statement's apparent epistemological status as a posteriori or a priori.